China Cable Industry

by:AAA     2021-03-04

In March 1897 (the 22nd year of Guangxu, Qing Dynasty), China's first underground power cable was put into use in Shanghai. The 2,700-meter-long rubber band-rim lead sheathed lighting cable used in that year was an imported product. It was not until forty-two years later (1939) that the first domestic cable was produced in Kunming (cable factory). Before 1949, the wire and cable industry had only more than 2,000 employees, about 500 production equipment, and the highest annual copper consumption was only 6,500 tons. Among them, the four wire factories in Kunming, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Shenyang share 5,700 tons of copper, accounting for 87.7% of the country's output, and the wire and cable industry is developing slowly. It was not until the founding of New China in 1949 that my country's wire and cable industry developed rapidly.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the wire and cable industry developed rapidly. In 1952, the number of conductors reached 15,300 tons, which was 2.63 times that before the founding of the People's Republic of China.

During the 'First Five-Year Plan' period, the wire and cable industry began to develop in a planned and healthy manner. In 1953, there were 6 wire and cable factories directly under the Ministry of Machinery in Kunming, Shenyang, Tianjin, Shanghai, Xiangtan and Harbin. Among them, the Shenyang Wire Factory is one of the national key construction projects. It was expanded with the assistance of the Soviet Union. It was completed and put into production in 1956 and was renamed Shenyang Cable Factory. Shanghai Electric Wire Factory expanded the *** line workshop, the perfect line workshop and planned to build the cable workshop. In 1957, it was renamed Shanghai Cable Factory. Tianjin Electric Wire Factory imported Hungarian wire drawing machines and enamelled machines, and built a new enameled wire workshop. In 1963, it was transferred back to the Ministry of Electronics Industry and renamed the 609 factory.

At the same time, the state gradually carried out socialist transformation of the rapidly developing private wire factory, and took rectification measures against the phenomenon of duplication of products, backward technology, and low quality at that time. Shanghai merged 105 private factories at the time into 18 central factories, Tianjin merged 65 private factories into 10 cable factories, Beijing merged 17 factories into Beijing Wire Factory, and Guangzhou merged 18 factories into Guangzhou Electric wire factory, Wuhan merged 3 factories into Wuhan Electric Wire Factory, and Fuzhou merged 10 factories into Fuzhou Rubber Wire Factory. Through the reorganization of joint ventures, technology and governance have been improved, and production development has been promoted.

In order to solve the problem of special equipment for the wire and cable industry, the private Shanghai Xinye Iron Factory was reorganized into a public-private joint Shanghai Xinye Electrical Machinery Factory, which mainly produced wire and cable equipment. From 1952 to 1957, a total of 221 sets of special equipment for wire and cable were produced.

In order to carry out scientific research and design work combining scientific research, process design, and process equipment design, the Shanghai Cable Research and Design Trial Winter was established in Shanghai in October 1957 to engage in research and design of wire and cable products, research on new materials and new processes, and process design of cable factories. Cable special equipment design and complete equipment selection and finalization work, and serve as the information center of the technical rear of the ministry and the wire and cable industry.

In order to improve the level of corporate governance, Shenyang Cable Factory compiled a 'Production Organization Design' for continuous operation enterprises on the basis of studying Soviet corporate governance. Subsequently, Shanghai Cable Factory formulated the working procedures and methods for production operation plan, material cost quota accounting, new product trial production, production technology preparation, etc. Other major factories have also carried out planning, production, technology, governance and economic accounting work, which has improved the level of corporate governance.

In 1958, various wire and cable factories competed to develop, building large-scale five cable factories in Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanxi, Baiyin, Guiyang, etc. At the same time, large-scale expansion of three factories in Xiangtan, Kunming and Shanghai. Zhengzhou Cable Factory started construction in 1959 and completed the civil works of the *** line workshop, and continued to build after revising the design scale in 1963. The Xi'an Cable Factory was commissioned by Harbin Wire Factory to participate in the construction. After completing the civil engineering of the communication cable and electromagnetic wire workshops and producing some products in 1959, the production was suspended in 1962, and then the copper grid workshop was built and put into production. In 1965, it moved from the Shenyang Cable Factory to the communication cable workshop and put it into production that year, clarifying the communication cable as the product development direction.

From 1958 to 1962, Shanghai Cable Factory built a new rolling workshop, a cable workshop, and a communication cable workshop, and expanded the first line workshop, greatly expanding its production capacity. Xiangtan Cable Factory was expanded at a new location in 1959, and the electromagnetic wire and electromagnetic wire workshop was developed. In 1964, the production of electromagnetic wire, electromagnetic wire, plastic, rubber sheath, mining and marine cables was developed. Kunming Cable Factory expanded the *** wire, electromagnetic wire workshop, and cable workshop in 1958, and stopped construction in 1961 after the start of construction. The Shenyang Cable Factory completed the cable car room in 1960, and the Harbin Wire Factory expanded the rolling and aluminum wire workshop. Factory 609 was also expanded during this period.

During this period, a number of small and medium-sized wire factories established on the basis of joint reorganization, such as wire factories in Wuxi, Wuhan, Tianjin, Beijing, Qingdao and other places, were expanded, and some moved to build factories. In addition, Chongqing, Hengyang, Foshan, Nanning, Kaifeng, Suzhou, Hangzhou, Xi'an, Wuhu, Beijing, Xingtai, Yuci, Liaoyuan, Harbin and other places have established many wire factories, electromagnetic wire factories, and wire factories. Some wire and cable factories have also been established in the post and telecommunications and railway sectors.

During this period, some cable accessory factories were developed, such as Wuhan Cable Accessory Factory, Changsha Cable Accessory Factory, Wuxi Plastic Products Factory, Shanghai Wuning Hardware Factory, etc.

In 1958, Shanghai Cable Research and Design Office was renamed Shanghai Cable Research Institute. Between 1959 and 1960, various laboratories and machine repair workshops were built, and civil engineering of high-pressure buildings was completed. In 1961, the military high-frequency and submarine communication cables were transferred back to the Tenth Research Institute of the Ministry of National Defense and later developed into the 1423 Research Institute.

From 1967 to 1968, Hubei Hongqi Cable Factory was contracted and built by Shanghai Cable Factory. After completion, the main products were ultra-high voltage cables, submarine communication cables, marine cables, and cross-linked polyethylene cables. There is also the Changtong Wire Factory, which was merged with Shanghai Dilai Electric Factory in Lanzhou and Baiyin Cable Factory, Guiyang Wire Factory, which was jointly relocated by Shanghai Plastic Wire, Aluminum Wire and other factories, and Qingdao Wire Factory was partly moved to Xintai Wire Factory. Part of the Fuzhou Electric Wire Factory was moved to Nanping Electric Wire Factory, part of the Harbin Electric Wire Factory was moved to Mudanjiang Electric Wire Factory, Hangzhou Cable Factory and Wenzhou Electric Wire Factory were partly moved to Shanhe Electrical Equipment Factory, and Wuxi Cable Factory was moved to Guangde Electric Wire Factory. Part of the Guangzhou Electric Wire Factory was moved to Huaxian Electric Wire Factory, and part of the Shenyang Electric Wire Factory was moved to Fushun Qingyuan to build 8290 Electric Wire Factory.

From 1966 to 1976, a number of new factories were built, such as Changchun, Jilin, Ji'an, Qinggang, Zhaodong, Fuxin, Yanqing, Lishi, Pingyuan, Xining, etc. The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications has established the Houma Cable Factory, and the Ministry of Railways has established the Jiaozuo Railway Electrical Equipment Factory and Tianshui Railway Cable Signal Factory.

Since the reform and opening up
The convening of the Third Plenary Session of China's Eleventh Central Committee and the implementation of the Sixth Five-Year Plan brought the enthusiasm of employees in the cable industry to a high level. In 1979, the amount of conductors rose to 439,200 tons. After the center put forward the policy of 'adjustment, reform, rectification, and progress' in 1979, the scale of my country's infrastructure was greatly reduced, and the demand for wires and cables decreased. However, with the development of the household appliance industry, the demand for some products, such as fine enameled wires, soared. With the results of the adjustment, production rebounded. In 1985, the amount of conductors rose to 623,000 tons.

In the reform and opening up, the development of internal linkages has enabled cross-regional and cross-industry in-linked enterprises to develop rapidly. At the same time, township enterprises and local enterprises have emerged in large numbers, the number of which is unprecedented in the past. However, until the 1990s, state-owned enterprises had an unshakable dominant position in my country's wire and cable industry. In the 1980s, the North and the South formed two hegemons, namely, the Shenyang Cable Factory and the Shanghai Cable Factory; in the 1990s, a three-pronged format of Shenyang Cable Factory, Shanghai Cable Factory and Zhengzhou Cable Factory was formed.

The wire and cable industry is the second largest industry in China after the automobile industry, with a product variety satisfaction rate and a domestic market share of over 90%. Worldwide, China's total wire and cable output value has surpassed that of the United States, becoming the world's largest wire and cable producer. With the rapid development of China's wire and cable industry, the number of new companies has continued to rise, and the overall technical level of the industry has been greatly improved.

The sustained and rapid growth of China's economy has provided huge market space for cable products. The strong temptation of the Chinese market has made the world focus on the Chinese market. In just a few decades of reform and opening up, China's cable manufacturing industry The huge production capacity formed has made the world look at it with admiration. With the continuous expansion of China's power industry, data communication industry, urban rail transit industry, automobile industry, shipbuilding and other industries, the demand for wire and cable will also grow rapidly, and the wire and cable industry still has huge development potential in the future. In November 2008, in response to the global financial crisis, my country's government decided to invest 4 trillion yuan to stimulate domestic demand, of which more than 40% will be used for the construction and transformation of urban and rural power grids. The national wire and cable industry has a good market opportunity again. Wire and cable companies in various regions seize the opportunity to welcome a new round of urban and rural power grid construction and transformation.

Whether China’s cable industry is currently or outside, there is almost no need to worry about market space issues. China’s various industries have ushered in great development. As an important supporting industry of the national economy, the wire and cable industry, 'where there is construction, you need to use it. 'Wire and cable', so the market is huge. However, we also see that the demand for special cables will increase in the future. Special cables have always been known for their high technical content requirements, high profit margins, high thresholds, and large market space. However, in the research and development of special cable products On the one hand, it is precisely the weak underbelly of China’s local cable industry, which is why the high-end market is dominated by foreign giants. For this reason, how do domestic cable manufacturers pry into the gap in the high-end market, thus creating a world of domestic cable production Important issues considered by enterprises.

Difference from wire

In fact, there is no strict boundary between 'wire' and 'cable'. Generally, products with a small number of cores, small product diameters, and simple structures are called wires, those without insulation are called bare wires, and the others are called cables; those with a larger conductor cross-sectional area (greater than 6 square millimeters) are called large wires. Small (less than or equal to 6 square millimeters) are called small wires, and insulated wires are also called cloth wires.

Difference with optical cable

Cable: When the phone converts the acoustic signal into an electrical signal and then transmits it to the switch via the line, the switch transmits the electrical signal directly to another phone via the line for answering. The transmission line during this conversation is the cable. The main part of the cable is copper core wire. The core wire diameters are divided into 0.32mm, 0.4mm and 0.5mm. The larger the diameter, the stronger the communication capability; and according to the number of core wires, there are: 5 pairs, 10 pairs, 20 pairs, 50 pairs, 100 pairs, 200 Yes, wait, the logarithm mentioned here refers to the maximum number of users that the cable can accommodate; and it is divided by package, which I don't know much about. Cable: It is large in size, weight, and poor in communication ability, so it can only be used for short-distance communication. Optical cable: When the phone converts the acoustic signal into an electrical signal and then transmits it to the switch via the line, the switch transmits the electrical signal to the photoelectric conversion device (converts the electrical signal into an optical signal) via the line to another photoelectric conversion device ( Convert the optical signal into electrical signal), and then to the switching equipment, to the other phone to answer. The line between the two photoelectric conversion devices is an optical cable. It is said that it is only divided by the number of core wires, the number of core wires: 4, 6, 8, 12 pairs and so on. Optical cable: It has the advantages of small size, weight, low cost, large communication capacity, and strong communication capability. Due to many factors, it is only used for long-distance and point-to-point (ie, two switch rooms) communication transmission. Their difference: the inside of the cable is copper core wire; the inside of the optical cable is glass fiber. Optical cable Communication optical cable is a kind of communication line in which a certain number of optical fibers compose a cable core in a certain way, and are covered with a sheath, and some are also covered with an outer sheath to realize the transmission of optical signals. Field tests have been carried out successively in Shanghai, Beijing, Wuhan and other places. Soon after, it was tried out as an inter-office trunk in the local telephone network. After 1984, it was gradually used for long-distance lines, and single-mode fiber was adopted. Communication optical cables have greater transmission capacity than copper cables, with long relay sections, small size, light weight, and no electromagnetic interference. Since 1976, they have developed long-distance trunk lines, intra-city relays, offshore and transoceanic submarine communications. , As well as the backbone of wired transmission lines such as local area networks and private networks, and began to develop into the field of user loop distribution networks in the city, providing transmission lines for fiber-to-the-home and broadband integrated service digital networks. A cable is usually a rope-like cable formed by twisting several or several groups of wires [each group of at least two wires]. Each group of wires are insulated from each other and often twisted around a center. The whole outer bread has a height Insulating coating; especially the submarine cable first: the material is different. Cables use metal materials (mostly copper and aluminum) as conductors; optical cables use glass fibers as conductors. Second: There is a difference in the transmission signal. The cable transmits electrical signals. Optical cables transmit optical signals. Third: There are differences in the scope of application. Cables are now mostly used for energy transmission and low-end data information transmission (such as telephones). Optical cables are mostly used for data transmission.

Difference with fiber

Cables are generally considered to be wires that are made of one or more mutually insulated conductors with insulation and protective layers, which transmit electricity or information from one place to another. In a broad sense, it refers to a device that uses metal as a medium to transmit electrical signals.

By definition, cables are used to conduct electricity. Generally made of the following metals:

Copper conductivity is second only to silver, and thermal conductivity is second only to gold and silver; corrosion resistance, non-magnetic, good plasticity, easy to solder, and versatile. Copper alloys mainly improve the wear resistance, corrosion resistance and mechanical and physical properties of copper.

Silver, the metal has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, has good corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance, and is easy to weld; mainly used for plating and cladding;

Gold and nickel are used as high temperature resistant wires.

Iron (steel) is often used as a reinforcing material for composite conductors, such as steel core aluminum wire, copper clad steel, aluminum clad steel wire, etc.

Zinc is used as coating for steel wire/steel strip/iron conductor to prevent corrosion.

Tin is used as the plating layer of steel wire/copper wire to prevent corrosion and facilitate the welding of copper wire.

optical fiber

Optical fiber is an abbreviation of optical fiber, which is a light transmission tool that uses the principle of total reflection of light in a fiber made of glass or plastic. The former presidents of the Chinese University of Hong Kong Gao Kun and George A. Hockham first proposed the idea that optical fiber can be used for communication transmission. For this reason, Gao Kun won the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics.

The transmitting device at one end of the optical fiber uses a light emitting diode (LED) or a laser beam to transmit light pulses to the optical fiber, and the receiving device at the other end of the optical fiber uses a photosensitive element to detect the pulses.

In daily life, since the transmission loss of light in optical fibers is much lower than that of electricity in wires, optical fibers are used for long-distance information transmission.
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